Benny16 escribió:South Africa and India push for COVID-19 patents ban (The Lancet, 5/12/20)
South Africa and India have called for the World Trade Organization (WTO) to suspend intellectual property (IP) rights related to COVID-19 to ensure that not only the wealthiest countries will be able to access and afford the vaccines, medicines, and other new technologies needed to control the pandemic. The pharmaceutical industry and many high-income countries (HICs) staunchly oppose the move, which they say will stifle innovation when it is needed most. Without special measures, proponents argue, rich countries will benefit from new technologies as they come onto the market, while poor nations continue to be devastated by the pandemic. The proposal states that IP rights such as patents are obstructing affordable COVID-19 medical products. A temporary ban would allow multiple actors to start production sooner, instead of having manufacturing concentrated in the hands of a small number of patent holders.
Es una discusión y un problema viejo, con las farmacéuticas y los países ricos razonado que sin patentes no hay medicamentos ni para ricos ni para pobres. Lo de siempre. A ver en qué queda todo, y si de verdad hay un esfuerzo internacional para que las vacunas sean asequibles.
Malabar escribió:Ya que esto empezo como el libro de la Guerra Mundial Z, estaria bien que acabará como el final de la película de la Guerra Mundial Z (ese final está entre las cosas de más ciencia ficción de una pelí de zombies... allí, allí con los zombies y el pelo perfecto de Brad Pitt).
To our knowledge, all documented cases of vaccine resistance can be attributed to the absence of at least one of three key features that most vaccines possess:
1) the vaccine induces an immune response that protects hosts by targeting multiple virus epitopes simultaneously, thereby generating redundant and evolutionarily-robust protection,
2) the vaccine suppresses pathogen growth within hosts and stops transmission from vaccine-protected hosts, and
3) the vaccine-induced immune response protects against all circulating serotypes of the target pathogen.
When feature 1 is present, resistance would likely require the appearance of multiple mutations, as opposed to just one, on the same genetic background. When feature 2 is present, little pathogen diversity would be generated during pathogen growth within vaccinated hosts, and the effects of selection on any resistance mutations that arose would be minimal. When feature 3 is present, new virus variants would need to be generated before resistance could be a problem, since vaccine resistance does not pre-exist. Combined together, these three features make the probability of resistance emergence vanishingly small.
(Lo reestructuro un poco para que se lea mejor)
Amino acid changes were predominantly in the spike gene and the receptor-binding domain, which make up 13% and 2% of the viral genome, respectively, but harbored 57% and 38% of the observed changes.
Repeated sampling over a prolonged infectious period allowed us to examine the evolutionary dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 in a human host. Studies of noroviruses and influenza viruses in immunocompromised hosts suggest that these individuals may be reservoirs of antigenically novel viruses and that within-host selection may parallel evolutionary dynamics on larger scales [12, 13]. Prior to the first course of remdesivir and convalescent plasma (days 7–31), we observed a steady accumulation of minority single-nucleotide variants (Supplementary Figure 1). Mutations accumulated over the next 2 months, and 9 mutations fixed between days 93 and 106. None of these mutations have been observed at >0.25% frequency in >88 000 sequences available in GISAID (Supplementary Table 3). Notably, there were no new mutations in the spike protein between days 7 and 106, despite early treatment with convalescent plasma. The ORF1b M101L substitution (day 93 and 106 samples) maps to NiRAN domain of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, but is not known to mediate remdesivir resistance.
Throughout the course of infection, there was marked within-host genomic evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Deep sequencing revealed a continuously changing virus population structure with turnover in the relative frequency of the observed genotypes over the course of infection. With SARS-CoV-2, there is generally relatively limited within-host variation reported, and over the course of infection, the major SARS-CoV-2 population remains identical.
Benny16 escribió:Es una discusión y un problema viejo, con las farmacéuticas y los países ricos razonado que sin patentes no hay medicamentos ni para ricos ni para pobres. Lo de siempre. A ver en qué queda todo, y si de verdad hay un esfuerzo internacional para que las vacunas sean asequibles.
Garin de Montglane escribió:Mucho me temo que esto es parte de un debate más amplio, sobre lo público/privado. Especialmente sobre la influencia de la industria en la universidad, qué se estudia, qué se investiga (...) Que lo hagan en las condiciones adecudas es obligación de los estados. Ojo. Y de nosotros como ciudadanos eligiendo en las elecciones a fulanos que estén dispuestos a controlar eso en lugar de darles patente de corso.
In this individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials, vitamin D supplementation reduced the risk of experiencing at least one acute respiratory tract infection. Subgroup analysis revealed that daily or weekly vitamin D supplementation without additional bolus doses protected against acute respiratory tract infection, whereas regimens containing large bolus doses did not. Among those receiving daily or weekly vitamin D, protective effects were strongest in those with profound vitamin D deficiency at baseline, although those with higher baseline 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations also experienced benefit (...) Why might use of bolus dose vitamin D be ineffective for prevention of acute respiratory tract infection? One explanation relates to the potentially adverse effects of wide fluctuations in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, which are seen after use of bolus doses but not with daily or weekly supplementation.
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